नेपाल कम्युनिष्ट पार्टीका संस्थापक महासचिव कमरेड पुष्पलालले नेपाल–भारत सम्वन्धलाई बडो प्रस्ष्ट र बस्तुबादी ढंगले हेरेका थिए र त्यसमा रहेका सकारात्मक कुरा र नकारात्मक कुरालाई प्रष्ट पारेर के कुरा सही र के गलत हो भन्ने कुरा यथार्थ आधारमा औंल्याएर दुइ देश बीचको सम्वन्ध बिकसित गर्नु पर्दछ भन्ने दृष्टिकोण राखेका थिए । भारतका शासक बर्ग र नेपालका शासक बर्गको मिलोमतो र उनीहरुका आपसी द्वन्द्वलाई राम्ररी बुझेका पुष्पलालले त्यसैले नेपाल–भारत जन–मैत्रीलाई बिशेष जोड दिएका थिए । जनमैत्री संघ खोलेर सञ्चाल गर्न आरम्भ पनि गरेका थिए । तर उनको असामयिक देहाबसान पछि त्यसले निरन्तरता पाउन र अझ बिकसित हुन सकेन । पुष्पलालले नेपाल र भारतका क्रान्तिकारी जनताको मित्रतालाई बिकसित र परिपक्क बनाएर लैजानु पर्दछ र त्यसले मात्र एक अर्कोको सम्मान, सद्भाव र सहयोगको अभिबृद्धि गर्दछ भन्ने कुरा पटक पटक औंल्याउने गर्दथे । आज पनि त्यो कुरा खट्किरहेको छ । यहाँ पुष्पलालले दुइ देशका बीचको सम्वन्धका बारेमा के कसरी सोच्दथे त्यसबारेमा एउटा सानो अंश यहाँ दिइन्छ :
The Questions of Indo-Nepal Relation
Since India's Independence, Indo-Nepal friendship has been much debated subject. The friendship between the countries has followed a zigzag course, and often the debate has generated more heat than understanding. A dispassionate analysis of the problem is essential to the promotion of friendship between the two neighbours.
Let us recall the then relations between the people of India and Nepal in the pre–independence days. They were cordial and based on a revolutionary objectives. Nepall provided shelter to many Indian revolutionaries particularly during the days of 1942 movement. Jai Prakash and Lohia were prominent among them. The people of Nepal can never forget the friendly help received from India in their fight against the Rana Sahi. The Indian national movement, in fact, inspired the Nepalese people in their fight for democracy. In spite of the severe restriction imposed by then Ranas,and the British authorities the revolutionaries of the two countries could manage to meet and discuss their common problems. The Indian leaders were highly respected in Nepal. Contrary to the expectations, the friendly relations began to take a different turn in the post-independence period. Over a number of issues controversies arose. Sometimes it led to accusations against one another from government leaders on the two sides.
It is necessary to have a clear idea of the factors responsible for the creation of this unhappy turn in the relations.
Partly, the unhappy turn in the relations between two countries in the post -independence period be attributed to the policy of the British Government in India towards Nepal. The British treated Nepal as a protectorate. But the Indian leaders want to a step further. To them Nepal appeared as a part of India. "The only true independent kingdom in India is Nepal on the North Western frontier" Nehru writes in his 'Discovery of India'. It is a startling discovery, indeed. To him, Nepal was not an independent and sovereign neighbouring country of India, but a "kingdom in India". If a statesmen of Nehru's stature could go so wrong in his understanding of the position of Nepal vis-vis Indian no wonder that the people of India labour under a similar illusion.
This wrong understanding found expression in the foreign policy of the Indian government headed by Nehru himself. Time and again he proclaimed in and outside the parliament that India's frontier extended up to the Himalayas. Further, he said that one of the main responsibilities of his government was to protect Nepal from external aggression, because of India's special interest in Nepal. It was unfortunate that the end of the British rule in India did not affect the official Indian view-point in respect of Nepal. Immediately after the end of Rana shahi in 1951 the intervention of the government of India in the internal affairs of Nepal was very much marked. In addition, to the Indian embassy, Mr. Govinda Narayan was deputed to the royal palace. His job as it was officially stated, was to arrange appointments between the king and the people of Nepal.
To be Continued.
Provided By Lok Narayan Subedi
Puspalal’s Intellectual Pursuits
Dr. Narad Bharadwaj
Comrade Puspalal’s bibliography is extensive and encompassing. It provides guidance to readers and researchers willing to study the regional history of South, Central and East Asia. It covers materials which shed light into the evolving societies from primitive matriarchal society to the modern times.
These notes serve as rare resource to get a glimpse of our history, culture and social ethos coming into conflict with the alien value systems when European colonisers intruded into the social, political and cultural spheres of the Asian society leaving them in disarray.
Puspalal pinpoints how foreign historians have tended to ‘plant a perception that Nepal and India form a single cultural entity’. From vast knowledge resources, he selects materials which refute this and help construct a distinct characteristic of the Nepali social- cultural milieu shaped up by the constant interaction of diverse civilisational values that have evolved under the concrete objective conditions prevailing in the geo-political space we call Nepal.
According to Puspalal, history is not a narrative of the ruling elites. ‘History is a living social organisation in which the process of integration and disintegration of society goes on unabated’. He interpreted history through the view point of historical materialism and extolled people’s role as the catalytic agents for change
In his notes, Puspalal made immense contribution in structuralising Nepali history by digging out peripheral resources from the relevant information found in the history of Kashmir, Tibet, Sikkim, Bhutan and India.
He brings out many unknown or less known facts of Nepalese history up for study and analysis. In his notes taken from BA Sanwal’s book he mentions about the growing social unrest against slavery in Nepal. Lord Ellen Borough abolished slavery in India in 1843. But it existed in Nepal as form of cruel and inhuman act of social injustice till 1929.
As an act of revolt against the inhuman practice eleven Nepali slave girls fled from the household of their master and took asylum in Tirahut, a region under British Indian control. The Nepali masters demanded the return of these girls pleading that slavery was legal in Nepal, but the British Indian government refused to surrender the girls saying that it was the object of the British government to gradually suppress the slavery.
In another instance, Puspalal quotes important information from Padma Giri’s ‘An Account of Nepal ‘ which helps clear long held perception about Prithvi Narayan Shah’s atrocity against the inhabitants of Kirtipur following the conquest of this town. Some historians have written that Prithvi Narayan Shah resorted to a heinous act of cutting off nose tips and earlobes of entire population following his victory without basing their generalisations on factual evidences.
In his collection of bibliographical notes, Puspalal quotes Padma Giri mentioning that the nose tips and ears of 865 people were cut off by the two Bhotiyas commissioned by Prithvi Narayan Shah to punish the Kirtipurians. But later, Prithvi Narayan Shah got them executed as ‘they had done the job with excessive zeal’.
This historical evidence cannot expunge the stigma which Prithvi Narayan Shah has earned by letting him-self stoop low to gratify his base human instinct of revenge but it serves to set the record right compelling historical analysts to judge him on the merit of facts.
This manuscript has now been published under the title, ‘Puspalal: Notes on History’ by Pushpalal Memorial Foundation. It is a precious addition in the treasure house of historical knowledge of this region which future scholars and writers may benefit from.
Dr. Bharadwaj is Embassador in Qutar now .
From The Rising Nepal